Anatomic pathology ascertains the effect of diseases on the structural aspect of the human body and its organs. This is determined by macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. The primary objective is to identify abnormalities, if any, and ascertain the causes that have led to the abnormalities.
Anatomic pathology is categorized into two main sub-specialties – histopathology and cytopathology. Histopathology is the microscopic examination of tissues and uses antibodies to determine the presence of any infection. Cytopathology, meanwhile, examines single cells for definitive diagnosis. A pap smear for cervical cancer is an example of cytopathology investigation.